Sunday, May 8, 2016

समां सुखदुःखयोः

भक्तां पतिव्रतां दीनां मां समां सुखदुःखयोः। 
नेतुमर्हसि काकुत्स्थ समानसुखदुःखिनीम्।।2.29.20।।

काकुत्स्थ, भक्तां, पतिव्रतां, दीनां, सुख-दुःखयोः, समां, समान-सुख-दुःखिनीं, मां, नेतुम्, अर्हसि is the prose order.

काकुत्स्थ=O Ram! (descendent of King Kakutstha), भक्तां=devotee, पतिव्रतां=loyal to husband only, दीनां=distressed, सुख-दुःखयोः=in happiness and sorrow, समां=equal, समान-सुख-दुःखिनीं=equally share (your) prosperity and sorrow, मां=me, नेतुम्=to take, अर्हसि=(you) are able (or are entitled).

Sita says to Rama, “O Ram, I am a devotee, loyal to husband (only), distressed, and equally treat happiness and sorrow. So, you are entitled (or are able - meaning you should) to take me with you to the forest because I am the one who share equally your prosperity and suffering”.

Here, by the phrase सुख-दुःखयोः समां, Sita talks about her nature (स्वभाव) meaning “I am equal in happiness and sorrow”. At the same time by the phrase समान-सुख-दुःखिनीं, Sita reminds Rama his duty that she (since became his wife) equally shares Rama’s prosperity and sufferings (as per the vow made during Panigrahana that I will be with you till the end of this life both in happiness and sorrow), since you (O Ram, need not feel guilty for taking me to the forest) are entitled (should take) to take me to the forest with you.

All the commentators explained on this line only.

One commentator namely Shivasahaya (in Shiromani) explained in an interesting way. His interpretation though may seem artificial but brought in a new theme to these two phrases. His interpretation is as below:

भक्तामिति । सुखदु:खयो: सुखं कुबेरादीनां राज्यादिभोगानन्द: दु:खमिव याभ्याम् तयो: रावणकुम्भकर्णयोरित्यर्थ: । दीनां विध्वंसिकां भक्तां त्वत्प्रीत्यनुकूलव्यापारवतीं समां प्रशस्तकुलादिमत्त्वेन त्वत्सदृशीं पतिव्रतामत एव समानसुखदु:खिनीं मां नेतुमर्हसि । सुखदु:खयोर्दीनामित्यनेन तद्वधे ऽहं निमित्तं भवितास्मीति ध्वनितम् ।

Meaning सुखं दुःखम् इव याभ्यां तौ = सुख-दुःखौ (अर्थात् कुबेरादीनां सुखम् एतयोः रावण-कुम्भकर्णयोः दुःखम् आसीत्), तयोः = सुख-दुःखयोः (बहुव्रीहिसमासः)। तयोः दीनां=वधकारिणीं, भक्तां= त्वत्प्रियां, समां=भवत्सदृशीम् उत्तमकुलसम्पन्नां, पतिव्रतां, समानसुखदुःखिनीं, मां, वनं नेतुम्, अर्हसि इति तात्पर्यम् ।

Meaning, I will be the cause for the killing of Ravana and Kumbhakarna who feel sorrow in the happiness of Kubera etc., Devataas (Gods). O Ram, you can take me with you to the forest as I am your devotee, share goods and bads of your life, born in the race of great Kings like you and will be the cause for the killing of Ravana and Kumbhakarna who feel sorrow in the happiness of the Gods.

This interesting interpretation given by Shivasahaya in his commentary Shiromani for the phrase सुखदु:खयो: दीनाम् ॥

Here both the phrases सुख-दुःखयोः समां and समानसुख-दुःखिनीं convey the different meaning because of their nature of compound. सुखं च दुःखं च = सुख-दुःखे, तयोः=सुख-दुःखयोः, समां = meaning who is equal in happiness and sorrow. Here, द्वन्द्वसमासः is clubbed with the independent word समां an adjective to सीता ।

Whereas, समानसुख-दुःखिनीं is a different compound. Here, there are two specialities in this compound. One is सुखं च दुःखं च = सुख-दुःखे (द्वन्द्वसमासः), again सुख-दुःखे स्तः अस्याः इति (मत्वर्थीये प्रत्यये) = सुख-दुःखिनी (सुख-दुःखिन् – सुखदुःखिनी) । Meaning who has happiness and sorrow. Further, समाना च सुख-दुःखिनी च = समान-सुखदुःखिनी, तां = समान-सुखदुःखिनीम् (कर्मधारय-समासः) । Here, this adjective समाना requires a comparison (आकाङ्क्षा) i.e. समाना to whom. Because this compound simply conveys the meaning by the nature of the compound “who has happiness and sorrow equal to (‘X’)” This makes one to interpret in that way, as there is no other way out “to satisfy this requirement (अकाङ्क्षा).

In the earlier phrase सुख-दुःखयोः समां it is independent in conveying the meaning what it intended to. Whereas, in the later समानसुख-दुःखिनीं, it is not independent in conveying the meaning it intended to. So this difference makes us to interpret like this. 


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